We have provided a number of the resources that we have used to educate ourselves about this important issue. We hope you find them helpful.
Effects of Cell Phone Use: Student Focus, Brain Activity and More
To explore some of the academic research on the effects of cell phones and other technologies on student focus, performance, and brain activity please see the following online articles:
Brain Drain: The Mere Presence of One’s Own Smartphone Reduces Available Cognitive Capacity
This is a study of the effects of cell phone proximity to a student on available working memory and functional fluid intelligence.
- A Ward, K. Duke, A. Gneezy, and M. Boss. “Brain Drain: The Mere Presence of One’s Own Smartphone Reduces Available Cognitive Capacity.” Association of Consumer Research vol.2 #2 (April 2017), https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/691462
- Christian M. End; "Costly Cell Phones: The Impact of Cell Phone Rings on Academic Performance." Xavier University First Published December 31, 2009. https://doi-org.ezproxy.umsl.edu/10.1080/00986280903425912
Dividing Attention in the Classroom Reduces Exam Performance
This is a study which found that multitasking with a device during class time affected student performance on exams.
- A. Glass and M. Kang. “Dividing Attention in the Classroom Reduces Exam Performance.” Educational Psychology (July 2018), https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/01443410.2018.1489046
- J. Twenge. “Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation?” The Atlantic (Sept. 2017). https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2017/09/has-the-smartphone-destroyed-a-generation/534198/
Higher Media Multi-Tasking Activity Is Associated with Smaller Gray-Matter Density in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex
This is a very interesting though preliminary study of the effects of multi-tasking on grey matter density.
- Loh, Kep Kee, and Ryota Kanai. “Higher Media Multi-tasking Activity is Associated with Smaller Gray-Matter Density in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex.” Plos One 9:9 (2014): e106698. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0106698
- “Ledger of Harms.” Ledger of Harms, 14 Dec. 2018, ledger.humanetech.com/
- Darnisha Ragupathi,* Normala Ibrahim, Kit-Aun Tan, and Beatrice Ng Andrew. "Relations of Bedtime Mobile Phone Use to Cognitive Functioning, Academic Performance, and Sleep Quality in Undergraduate Students." Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Oct; 17(19): 7131.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7579316/?tool=pmcentrez&report=abstract
- Rosen, Christine. “The Myth of Multitasking.” The New Atlantis 20 (2008): http://faculty.winthrop.edu/hinera/crtw-spring_2011/themythofmultitasking_rosen.pdf
From Pope Francis
For more on what Pope Francis has written about technology in the digital age, please refer to these online articles:
- Grogan, Courtney. “From Influencers to Cyborgs, Pope Francis Has Tech Advice for Young People.” Catholic News Agency, Catholic News Agency, 5 Apr. 2019, www.catholicnewsagency.com/news/from-influencers-to-cyborgs-pope-francis-has-tech-advice-for-young-people-81464
- Francis. “‘Christus Vivit’: Post-Synodal Exhortation to Young People and to the Entire People of God (25 March 2019): Francis.” "Christus Vivit": Post-Synodal Exhortation to Young People and to the Entire People of God (25 March 2019) | Francis, w2.vatican.va/content/francesco/en/apost_exhortations/documents/papa-francesco_esortazione-ap_20190325_christus-vivit.html
The Dopamine Loop
For more research on the Dopamine Loop, please refer to these online articles:
- Weinschenk, Susan. “The Dopamine Seeking-Reward Loop.” Psychology Today, Sussex Publishers, 28 Feb. 2018, www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/brain-wise/201802/the-dopamine-seeking-reward-loop
- Haynes, Trevor. “Dopamine, Smartphones & You: A Battle for Your Time.” Science in the News, 27 Feb. 2019, sitn.hms.harvard.edu/flash/2018/dopamine-smartphones-battle-time/
To Fight Cell Phone Addiction
For more tips and additional resources on how to manage cell phone use, please refer to these online articles:
- Sarah E. Domoff, Ryan P. Foley, Rick Ferkel. "Addictive Phone Use and Academic Performance in Adolescents." First published: 10 September 2019, https://doi.org/10.1002/hbe2.171, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hbe2.171
- Grohol, John M. “Coping with Cell Phone Addiction.” Psych Central, 8 Oct. 2018, psychcentral.com/lib/coping-with-cell-phone-addiction/
- Akkawi, Yazin. “7 Ways to Curb Your Smartphone Addiction Right Now.” Inc.com, Inc., 31 May 2018, www.inc.com/yazin-akkawi/7-ways-to-curb-your-smartphone-addiction-right-now.html
- “Take Control.” Center For Humane Technology, https://humanetech.com/resources/take-control/
- Sossel, Max. "Tools & Reminders For Parents." Center for Human Technology, http://humanetech.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/Education-In-The-Age-Of-Distraction-Follow-Up-For-Website-updated6.24.19.pdf
Tech Insiders & Intent To Addict
For more on the tech insider perspective, the intent behind some cell phone and app designs, and the impact of the proliferation of cell phones and technology, please refer to these online articles.
- Bowles, Nellie. “A Dark Consensus About Screens and Kids Begins to Emerge in Silicon Valley.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 26 Oct. 2018, www.nytimes.com/2018/10/26/style/phones-children-silicon-valley.html.
- Silverman, Ellie. “Facebook’s First President, on Facebook: ‘God Only Knows What It’s Doing to Our Children’s Brains’” The Washington Post, 9 Nov. 2017, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-switch/wp/2017/11/09/facebooks-first-president-on-facebook-god-only-knows-what-its-doing-to-our-childrens-brains/?utm_term=.c8301b6d1838
- Lewis, Paul. “'Our Minds Can Be Hijacked': the Tech Insiders Who Fear a Smartphone Dystopia.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 6 Oct. 2017, www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/oct/05/smartphone-addiction-silicon-valley-dystopia.
- Thompson, Nicholas. “Tristan Harris: Tech Is 'Downgrading Humans.' It's Time to Fight Back.” Wired, Conde Nast, 30 Apr. 2019, www.wired.com/story/tristan-harris-tech-is-downgrading-humans-time-to-fight-back/.
- Cooper, Anderson. “What Is ‘Brain Hacking’? Tech Insiders on Why You Should Care.” CBS News, CBS Interactive, 9 Apr. 2017, www.cbsnews.com/news/brain-hacking-tech-insiders-60-minutes/.